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miércoles 22 noviembre 2017



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Fishing trainera


The spontaneous emergence of the trainera coincided with a scarcity of salted cod as a result of the Treaty of Utrecht. As a result, inshore fishermen began to concentrate more on sardines and other alternatives. Duhamel du Monceau attributes the invention of both the encircling net and the swift and easily manoeuvrable trainera needed to use the nets to an anonymous fisherman from Hondarribia in the first half of the eighteenth century. The trainera was a light fast vessel powered by twelve oarsmen and fitted with a keel with a minimal arched section. This made it possible to tack or put about very tightly, to cast out a seine net (called a xerkua) to starboard. This net was designed to surround the fish, and was relatively small so that it could be manoeuvred into place quickly.

The term trainera appeared quite late, in the second half of the
nineteenth century; previously these boats had been known by the
more generic names "chalupa" and "lancha Manjuera".
The term trainera appeared quite late, in the second half of the nineteenth century; previously these boats had been known by the more generic names "chalupa" and "lancha Manjuera". © José Lopez
The invention of the encircling net and the trainera were probably
inspired by the chinga and the uarika. The chinga was a net
used in the estuary of the Bidasoa, although it has also been used
in Pasaia. It is thought to be very old and from it comes the place
name Txingudi (the place of chingas), the bay in the Bidasoa
estuary. The technique consisted of casting out the net from the
beach using a vessel about six metres long called a uarika or ubarika,
making a half circle to trap the fish inside. Finally the two ends
of the chinga were hauled in from the beach until the net with its
catch could be recovered. The net was stretched out on the beach
at low tide or mid-tide, generally at dawn, to catch flat-head grey
mullet and to a lesser extent sole and other fish.
The invention of the encircling net and the trainera were probably inspired by the chinga and the uarika. The chinga was a net used in the estuary of the Bidasoa, although it has also been used in Pasaia. It is thought to be very old and from it comes the place name Txingudi (the place of chingas), the bay in the Bidasoa estuary. The technique consisted of casting out the net from the beach using a vessel about six metres long called a uarika or ubarika, making a half circle to trap the fish inside. Finally the two ends of the chinga were hauled in from the beach until the net with its catch could be recovered. The net was stretched out on the beach at low tide or mid-tide, generally at dawn, to catch flat-head grey mullet and to a lesser extent sole and other fish. © José Lopez

The invention of the surrounding net revolutionised the economy
of this region. Catches were increased, leading to growth in the salting industry. This technique met with outstanding success
and it soon spread to the rest of the world. Motorisation of the
boats, making them more powerful, has led to a gradual increase
in the size of the net.
The invention of the surrounding net revolutionised the economy of this region. Catches were increased, leading to growth in the salting industry. This technique met with outstanding success and it soon spread to the rest of the world. Motorisation of the boats, making them more powerful, has led to a gradual increase in the size of the net. © José Lopez

The sails of the traineras were used only for getting from one
place to another, with fishing operations powered exclusively by
oarsmen.
The sails of the traineras were used only for getting from one place to another, with fishing operations powered exclusively by oarsmen. © José Lopez

Shoals of sardine could often be located by the flocks of seagulls
and other sea birds flying over them. Watchmen on the coast
would look out for such signs and inform the fishermen.
Shoals of sardine could often be located by the flocks of seagulls and other sea birds flying over them. Watchmen on the coast would look out for such signs and inform the fishermen. © José Lopez
Line drawing of a trainera.
Line drawing of a trainera. © José Lopez

Ameriketatik, a replica of a fishing trainera from the second
half of the nineteenth century, based on a plan by Mutiozabal. She
was built by the author in 1998 at the Apprenticeshop boatbuilding
school in Rockland, Maine (USA) and financed by the Basque
Diaspora from the American continent to be presented to the
people of the Basque Country. Since then, Ameriketatik (meaning
“from America”) has represented Basque marine heritage at numerous
international events.
Ameriketatik, a replica of a fishing trainera from the second half of the nineteenth century, based on a plan by Mutiozabal. She was built by the author in 1998 at the Apprenticeshop boatbuilding school in Rockland, Maine (USA) and financed by the Basque Diaspora from the American continent to be presented to the people of the Basque Country. Since then, Ameriketatik (meaning “from America”) has represented Basque marine heritage at numerous international events. © José Lopez

Sardines
Sardines. © José Lopez

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