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Bertan > Bertan 18 Fortificaciones en Gipuzkoa: siglos XVI-XIX > Ingeles bertsioa: Artillery and shells

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Artillery and shells

128. Iron cannon ball or 'Russian cannonball'. These could be heated in a stove until they were red-hot to be used as a very effective weapon against ships. Two half-cannonballs joined by a chain were used to knock spars off ships.© Gorka Agirre
128. Iron cannon ball or 'Russian cannonball'. These could be heated in a stove until they were red-hot to be used as a very effective weapon against ships. Two half-cannonballs joined by a chain were used to knock spars off ships.© Gorka Agirre
129. Stone 'bolaño', mainly used by the bombards and early mortars.© Gorka Agirre
129. Stone 'bolaño', mainly used by the bombards and early mortars.© Gorka Agirre
130. Hollow iron bomb to be fired from a mortar. These had a hole into which gunpowder was introduced and a rudimentary 'fuse' which caused the inner charge to explode at a particular moment. Spherical shells were replaced by pointed ones.© Gorka Agirre
130. Hollow iron bomb to be fired from a mortar. These had a hole into which gunpowder was introduced and a rudimentary 'fuse' which caused the inner charge to explode at a particular moment. Spherical shells were replaced by pointed ones.© Gorka Agirre
131. Grenade for rifled artillery piece. The purpose of the ribs, made of soft metal, is to help create grooves which used the rifling as rails to make the shell revolve around its axis. © Gorka Agirre
131. Grenade for rifled artillery piece. The purpose of the ribs, made of soft metal, is to help create grooves which used the rifling as rails to make the shell revolve around its axis. © Gorka Agirre
132. Grenade from Whitworth cannon (c. 19). During the last Carlist War, the Carlists acquired 70 cannons of this type. The shells were known popularly as cucumbers and gherkins. A large number were fired on San Sebastián from the battery of Benta-sikin (Usurbil). © Gorka Agirre
132. Grenade from Whitworth cannon (c. 19). During the last Carlist War, the Carlists acquired 70 cannons of this type. The shells were known popularly as cucumbers and gherkins. A large number were fired on San Sebastián from the battery of Benta-sikin (Usurbil). © Gorka Agirre
133. View and cross-section of a grenade from a Whitworth cannon. It was hexagonal in section and contained a gunpowder charge detonated by a fuse.© Martín Izagirre
133. View and cross-section of a grenade from a Whitworth cannon. It was hexagonal in section and contained a gunpowder charge detonated by a fuse.© Martín Izagirre
134. Pointed grenade. Spherical shells were replaced by various different types of ammunition: shrapnel canister, segmented grenade, twin-walled grenades, star-segmented, incendiary grenades, shrapnel grenades, most designed so that when they exploded, the fragments of shell would cause injuries to enemy troops and damage to fortifications and other constructions. The perforating grenade was used first with a blunt head and later in pointed shape to pierce the armour of warships while the torpedo grenade) was used to pierce ground defences and destroy the stonework with its charge of high explosives.© Gorka Agirre
134. Pointed grenade. Spherical shells were replaced by various different types of ammunition:
shrapnel canister, segmented grenade, twin-walled grenades, star-segmented, incendiary grenades, shrapnel grenades, most designed so that when they exploded, the fragments of shell would cause injuries to enemy troops and damage to fortifications and other constructions. The perforating grenade was used first with a blunt head and later in pointed shape to pierce the armour of warships while the torpedo grenade) was used to pierce ground defences and destroy the stonework with its charge of high explosives.© Gorka Agirre
135. Bronze bombard of German origin (c. 16). The first heavy guns were made of cast iron (c. 16 - c. 17). The bombard (or Lombard) was the most characteristic of these. It is formed of two parts: the chamber, which contained the charge of gunpowder and the longer and larger-calibre muzzle, through which the shell passed. The two were joined to each other and to the carriage by ropes. Bombards were very complicated to load and could only be fired about eight times a day. The effective range was no more than 200 metres. Other lighter Spanish guns from the same era include the 'pasavolante', the 'bombardeta', the 'falconete', the 'ribadoquín' and the musket. © Gorka Agirre
135. Bronze bombard of German origin (c. 16). The first heavy guns were made of cast iron (c. 16 - c. 17). The bombard (or Lombard) was the most characteristic of these. It is formed of two parts:
the chamber, which contained the charge of gunpowder and the longer and larger-calibre muzzle, through which the shell passed. The two were joined to each other and to the carriage by ropes. Bombards were very complicated to load and could only be fired about eight times a day. The effective range was no more than 200 metres. Other lighter Spanish guns from the same era include the 'pasavolante', the 'bombardeta', the 'falconete', the 'ribadoquín' and the musket. © Gorka Agirre
136. Iron mortar. The mortar is a large-calibre gun of short length, used in indirect fire; i.e., the shell is fired on a curved trajectory, unlike direct-fire guns. The advantage of the mortar is that it can be used to fire shells over walls and into the fortifications, or to fire at concealed targets (e.g. on the hidden side of a mountain). It consists of a single piece of iron or bronze divided internally into the chamber (which held the gunpowder) and the muzzle The chamber is much shorter and narrower than the muzzle.© Gorka Agirre
136. Iron mortar. The mortar is a large-calibre gun of short length, used in indirect fire;
i.e., the shell is fired on a curved trajectory, unlike direct-fire guns. The advantage of the mortar is that it can be used to fire shells over walls and into the fortifications, or to fire at concealed targets (e.g. on the hidden side of a mountain). It consists of a single piece of iron or bronze divided internally into the chamber (which held the gunpowder) and the muzzle The chamber is much shorter and narrower than the muzzle.© Gorka Agirre
137. Iron cannon. The most commopn artillery piece used in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was the culverin. It was long and narrow and could not be used to break down fortifications. As a result, the first quarter of the sixteenth century saw the emergence of the cannon, which was shorter but had a larger calibre. They were both made from a single piece and were muzzle-loaded. They were made of bronze or cast iron and had stumps to allow vertical movement vertical of the piece on the gun carriage. Many of them had handles to make them easier to move. Until the mid-nineteenth century, the 'calibre' of the guns was defined not by the diameter of the muzzle, but by the weight (in pounds) of the solid iron cannonball it used. Culverins has an effective range of 400 m and cannons of 300 m. In the eighteenth century artillery became more standardised, with the emergence of uniform 'ordnance' artillery.© Juan Antonio Sáez
137. Iron cannon. The most commopn artillery piece used in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was the culverin. It was long and narrow and could not be used to break down fortifications. As a result, the first quarter of the sixteenth century saw the emergence of the cannon, which was shorter but had a larger calibre. They were both made from a single piece and were muzzle-loaded. They were made of bronze or cast iron and had stumps to allow vertical movement vertical of the piece on the gun carriage. Many of them had handles to make them easier to move. Until the mid-nineteenth century, the 'calibre' of the guns was defined not by the diameter of the muzzle, but by the weight (in pounds) of the solid iron cannonball it used. Culverins has an effective range of 400 m and cannons of 300 m. In the eighteenth century artillery became more standardised, with the emergence of uniform 'ordnance' artillery.© Juan Antonio Sáez
138. Breech-loaded rifled 21-cm bronze howitzer, (1885 model) on a 'Seraing' gun carriage, with a range of 6,000 metres. The howitzer is an intermediary between the cannon and the mortar, designed for indirect fire. From the second half of the nineteenth century, guns were manufactured with rifling which gave them greater precision and range. Greater pressure and wear in the bore led to the manufacture of guns from new materials (compressed bronze, steel) and in new forms: hooped (reinforcement with metal rings) (See Illustration No. 192) and tubed (use of more resistant materials in the areas subject to greatest wear) (See Illustration 188). Because they were breech-loaded they could be fired more quickly and they were fitted with various mechanisms (brake and recoverer) to minimise the recoil. © Juan Antonio Sáez
138. Breech-loaded rifled 21-cm bronze howitzer, (1885 model) on a 'Seraing' gun carriage, with a range of 6,000 metres. The howitzer is an intermediary between the cannon and the mortar, designed for indirect fire. From the second half of the nineteenth century, guns were manufactured with rifling which gave them greater precision and range. Greater pressure and wear in the bore led to the manufacture of guns from new materials (compressed bronze, steel) and in new forms:
hooped (reinforcement with metal rings) (See Illustration No. 192) and tubed (use of more resistant materials in the areas subject to greatest wear) (See Illustration 188). Because they were breech-loaded they could be fired more quickly and they were fitted with various mechanisms (brake and recoverer) to minimise the recoil. © Juan Antonio Sáez
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