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Basque during the spanish republic


In the 1930S, after several decades of upheaval in Spanish politics, the Basque language began to see an incipient social recognition. In the midst of this cultural renaissance, poetry and theatre flourished. New Basque-language magazines and weeklies were published, featuring prestigious correspondents. Despite the obstacles placed in the way by the Spanish government, the desire to turn Basque into a fully-fledged cultural tongue spread to the field of education and the first ikastolas (Basque-language schools) were founded. Basque culture, which had re-emerged with relative strength after the Carlist Wars, attained its moment of greatest splendour. Like other cultural and popular movements, however, it was hit hard by Franco's military uprising.

191. Following Primo de Rivera's coup d'état in 1923, his government made Spanish the primary language in education, the church and in public life. With the coming of the Second Republic (1931- 1936) and the transfer of powers on education to the regions, many people called for children to be taught through their mother tongue. However, Basque only became an official language in October 1936, when the Basque Government proclaimed the Statute of Autonomy, several months after the war had already begun. 192. Tene Mujika (Robustiana Mugika Egaña, Deba, 1888-1981), one of the first woman writers in Basque, published short stories, theatre and essays. During this time the modern women poets Frantziska Astibia Onintze and Sorne Unzueta Utarsus also published work. 193. The first ikastola was founded in Bilbao in 1896 by Resurrección María de Azkue and the second in 1914, by the Muñoa family in San Sebastian. At one point it had 300 students. The first association of ikastolas, Euzko Ikastola Batza, was founded in 1932. The first text books in Basque were also published at this time: Xabiertxo (1925 first edition) published by Isaac López de Mendizabal, Tolosa. 194. Illustrations by Jon Zabalo Txiki (Manchester 1892-1948). 195. Txomin Agirre (Ondarroa, 1864-1920) is considered to be the creator of the Basque novel, writing costumbrista folkloric tales su as Auñamendiko Lorea in 1898, Kresala (1906) and Garoa (1912). 196. The Basque-speaking composer Maurice Ravel (Ziburu 1875- 1937) was an exponent of European musical impressionism, and wrote works on Basque themes such as Trio, Zazpiak bat and Euskal kontzertua. This stamp was issued in Monaco on the centenary of the composer's birth. 197. Cover of Euskal Ordua, published in Montevideo, Uruguay in 1934. 198. Poster by Aurelio Arteta. 199. Arriaga Theatre. Bilbao. 200. Xabier de Lizardi (Jose Maria Aguirre Egaña, (Zarautz, 1896- 1933). A poet and leading writer, together with Estepan Urkiaga Lauaxeta. (Laukiz, 1905-1937), he was one of the leading figures of pre-Civil War literature. His poetry —Biotz-begietan (1932) and his posthumous anthology Umezurtz-olerkiak (1934)— marked a move from romanticism to symbolism in Basque literature. He also wrote drama and prose, participated actively in Euskaltzaleak and always pursued the dream of a Basque-language newspaper. 201. Aitzol, José de Ariztimuño (1896-1936) led the second Basque renaissance from 1930, as the chairman of Euskaltzaleak. He organised annual Basque poetry and theatre festivals, Bertsolari Guduak, and published the bilingual newspaper El Día (1930-36) and the magazine Yakintza (1933-37). The group of poets centring on Euskaltzaleak (Lizardi, Lauaxeta, Orixe and Loramendi) formed one of the most important nuclei of lyrical and avant-garde output of Basque literature. He was executed in Hernani on October 1936, after being captured and imprisoned by the insurrectionists. 202. This episode of the adventures of popular comic book hero Bécassine in 1925 was set in the Basque Country, an exotic location for its French- and English-speaking readership. 203. Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island. 204. Advertisements for transatlantic passages. 205. Before 1936, about ten weeklies were published in Basque. Correspondents included Fermín Irigaray Larreko (Auritz 1869-1949) and Enrike Zubiri Manezaundi (Luzaide, 1867-1943). The popular writer Ebaristo Bustintza (Mañaria, 1886-1929), Kirikiño, began his career writing articles for the magazine Euskaltzale. In 1921 Argia was launched in San Sebastian. One of the chief publications in the Northern Basque Country was the conservative weekly Eskualduna (Bayonne, 1887-1944), which formed the centre for the Gizaldi gaztea group of writers, with Jean Etxepare, Jean Barbier and Jules Moulier Oxobi. 206. At the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, hundreds of thousands of Basques moved to the USA, where a community was formed with a strong personality based on its Basque roots. Like many of them, Lucy Garatea, from Lekeitio (Biscay), disembarked at Ellis Island. Lucy became the central figure in the exhibition Hidden in Plain Sight: the Basques which opened in February 2010 in the halls where immigrants to the country were once received. On their way to the west, the immigrants were received in New York by other Basques, before setting off for Oregon, Nevada and Idaho. 207. Idaho licence plate.
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